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Periodontics

  • Periodontics is a branch of dental medicine that focuses on the treatment of the supporting structures of teeth or periodontium. The periodontium consists of the following tissues: periodontal ligament, the gingiva, the cementum and the alveolar bone.
  • Periodontal illnesses
  • Periodontitis or periodontal disease is a chronic ailment of the periodontium, often referred to also as gum disease. Together with dental caries, it is the most widespread illness of the oral cavity. People over the age of 40 lose their teeth more often due to periodontitis than due to teeth cavities. Among the first symptoms are gums that are swollen and red in color and that easily bleed. The causes of periodontitis are various, but among the most often ones are certainly poor oral hygiene and bad habits such as smoking and teeth grinding. Plaque, i.e. the presence of microorganisms, is crucial for the development of periodontal disease. Plaque produces acids that erode and damage the enamel and the gums causing their inflammation, i.e. gingivitis. The inflammation causes tissue to swell and thus gingival pockets occur. If the inflammation is not treated properly, the pocket deepens, and it evolves into periodontitis, which ultimately leads to the loss of teeth and bone in the jaw which supports them.
  • Treatment
  • In its initial stage, periodontitis is treated by removing the causative agent, i.e. plaque and tartar, and by disciplined oral hygiene. Apart from brushing your teeth with toothpaste and a toothbrush, a dental floss should also be used, because it enables you to efficiently clean between your teeth. If the disease is in a more advanced stage, the tooth root and the periodontal pocket must be cleaned in order to avoid the extraction of the tooth. Plaque and tartar, together with the bacteria, must be completely removed from all surfaces of the teeth including the pocket. Sometimes, the periodontal pockets must be removed surgically. This disease can cause serious damage to the tooth tissue and jaw bone. That is why surgery must be performed, i.e. the guided bone regeneration procedure. This process is carried out utilizing bone grafts protected by bio-compatible membranes which keep fast-growing gum tissue out and allow the bone to grow.